2011年5月30日 星期一

波斯灣: Iran Vows to Unplug Internet

2011年 05月 30日 15:17
Iran Vows to Unplug Internet

Iran is taking steps toward an aggressive new form of censorship: a so-called national Internet that could, in effect, disconnect Iranian cyberspace from the rest of the world.

The leadership in Iran sees the project as a way to end the fight for control of the Internet, according to observers of Iranian policy inside and outside the country. Iran, already among the most sophisticated nations in online censoring, also promotes its national Internet as a cost-saving measure for consumers and as a way to uphold Islamic moral codes.

In February, as pro-democracy protests spread rapidly across the Middle East and North Africa, Reza Bagheri Asl, director of the telecommunication ministry's research institute, told an Iranian news agency that soon 60% of the nation's homes and businesses would be on the new, internal network. Within two years it would extend to the entire country, he said.

The unusual initiative appears part of a broader effort to confront what the regime now considers a major threat: an online invasion of Western ideas, culture and influence, primarily originating from the U.S. In recent speeches, Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and other top officials have called this emerging conflict the 'soft war.'

On Friday, new reports emerged in the local press that Iran also intends to roll out its own computer operating system in coming months to replace Microsoft Corp.'s Windows. The development, which couldn't be independently confirmed, was attributed to Reza Taghipour, Iran's communication minister.

Iran's national Internet will be 'a genuinely halal network, aimed at Muslims on an ethical and moral level,' Ali Aghamohammadi, Iran's head of economic affairs, said recently according to a state-run news service. Halal means compliant with Islamic law.

Mr. Aghamohammadi said the new network would at first operate in parallel to the normal Internet─banks, government ministries and large companies would continue to have access to the regular Internet. Eventually, he said, the national network could replace the global Internet in Iran, as well as in other Muslim countries.

A spokesman for Iran's mission to the United Nations declined to comment further, saying the matter is a 'technical question about the scientific progress of the country.'

There are many obstacles. Even for a country isolated economically from the West by sanctions, the Internet is an important business tool. Limiting access could hinder investment from Russia, China and other trading partners. There's also the matter of having the expertise and resources for creating Iranian equivalents of popular search engines and websites, like Google.

Few think that Iran could completely cut its links to the wider Internet. But it could move toward a dual-Internet structure used in a few other countries with repressive regimes.

2011年 05月 30日 15:17

Andres Gonzalez for The Wall Street Journal

朗正在朝一種新的激進審查制度邁進:推出一個所謂的“全國互聯網”(national internet)﹐它事實上可以將伊朗國內的網絡和世界其它地區隔離開來。


今年2月﹐就在要求民主的抗議活動在中東和北非國家迅速蔓延之際﹐伊朗電信部研究院的主管阿賽爾(Reza Bagheri Asl)對一家伊朗通訊社說﹐很快伊朗國內60%的家庭和企業將會用上新的國內網絡﹐兩年內這個內部網絡將擴大到全國。

在 伊朗政府看來﹐互聯網上主要來自美國的西方思想、文化和影響力的“入侵”是一個重大威脅。為了應對這一威脅﹐伊朗政府採取了一系列措施﹐而建立內部網絡這 一不尋常的做法只是其中一項。在最近幾次講話中伊朗最高領袖哈梅內伊(Ayatollah Ali Khamenei)和其他高級官員把這種新出現的沖突稱作“軟戰爭”。

Associated Press
上 週五﹐伊朗當地媒體有報道稱伊朗還打算在未來幾個月內推出自己研發的電腦操作系統﹐以取代微軟公司(Microsoft Corp.)的Windows操作系統。這一消息據說是伊朗電信部長塔吉普(Reza Taghipour)透露的﹐它目前還無法得到獨立消息來源的證實。

伊朗一家國營新聞機構報道說﹐主管伊朗經濟事務的官員阿加莫罕馬迪(Ali Aghamohammadi)近日稱﹐伊朗的全國互聯網將是一個名副其實的清真網絡﹐針對穆斯林開發﹐有自己的倫理和道德標準。這裡“清真”的意思是指符合伊斯蘭法律的規定。

Agence France Presse/Getty Images


但 伊朗想要實現這個計劃也面臨許多障礙。即使是對伊朗這個因受到制裁而在經濟上與西方隔絕的國家來說﹐互聯網依舊是一個重要的商貿工具。限制互聯網訪問可能 會阻礙來自俄羅斯、中國和其他貿易伙伴的投資。另外伊朗是否有足夠的專業知識和資源去搭建像谷歌(Google)一樣受到歡迎的搜索引擎和網站也是一個問 題。