2013年1月18日 星期五

屠殺200萬人 赤柬四大魔頭審判一波三折The Extraordinary Trial of Khmer Rouge Leaders


The Extraordinary Trial of Khmer Rouge Leaders

That means the Khmer Rouge genocide trials in Cambodia, "one the most significant war crimes trials since " (according to the scholar Peter Maguire, author of "Facing Death in Cambodia,") have slowed again.
Still, the attempt to deliver justice to more than 1.7 million Cambodians killed by their government between 1975 and 1979 continues: the hospitalization of Nuon Chea, 86, the highest-ranking surviving leader of the regime and its main ideologue, known as Brother No. 2 during the reign, is merely the latest bump in the road for the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.
It is a remarkable tale of perseverance and pitfalls.
Set up by the United Nations and the Cambodian government, the court began operating in 2006 and has to date convicted just one man, "Duch," or Kaing Guek Eav, the commandant of the main Khmer Rouge prison, Tuol Sleng. "Duch" was ultimately sentenced to life in prison. This video from the court's Web site shows Duch apologizing repeatedly.
Bowing to political pressures within Cambodia and overseas, the experimental, mixed tribunal is a "special new court" jointly created by the Cambodian government and the U.N. and supposedly independent of both. The reality has been far messier, critics say.
Probably more criticized than praised, the trial is in itself a real achievement, as Mr. Maguire wrote in this newspaper in 2011, at the beginning of the current trial of Mr. Nuon Chea and his co-defendants, Ieng Sary, the former foreign minister, and Khieu Samphan, the former head of state.
"The fact that the case has even made it this far is a minor miracle to those of us who were in Cambodia during the 1990s, when the defendants' amnesties seemed secure," Mr. Maguire wrote.
Yet the roller-coaster court was jolted again in December by the resignation of three lawyers, Jasper Pauw, Michiel Pestman and Andrew Ianuzzi. The lawyers were defenders for Nuon Chea in Case 002, as the current trial is known. They cited "government interference that prevented them from best defending their client," the Phnom Penh Post reported.
Among the main problems raised by the lawyers were that sitting Cambodian government ministers refused to reply with court summonses, a complaint described by Clair Duffy, a tribunal monitor for the Open Society Justice Initiative, as having "some merit," according to the Phnom Penh Post story.
So Brother No. 2's hospitalization on Sunday at the Khmer Soviet Friendship Hospital in Phnom Penh with acute bronchitis was merely the latest in a string of issues. Increasingly, ill health among the accused, who are all over 80, threatens to terminate the trial completely. A fourth defendant, Ieng Thirith, the sister-in-law of the regime's former leader, Pol Pot, and the wife of Mr. Ieng Sary, has already been dropped from the case on grounds of dementia.
Brother No. 1, Pol Pot, died in 1998 without being tried.
In an expert commentary on the Cambodia Tribunal Monitor's Web site, Mr. Maguire lashed out at the United Nations, saying: "Cambodia's 'mixed tribunal' should be deemed an expensive, overcomplicated experiment that should never be tried again."
Mr. Maguire warned that the United Nations ran the risk of never completing Case 002 - and failing to bring justice to Cambodia. But the court could still succeed in what has become a race against time, he said.
"The court's reputation can be salvaged if they can complete the case against the senior Khmer Rouge leaders while they are still alive," he wrote. The court would "end on a high note that even longtime critics like myself will concede."
To follow the extraordinary - and extraordinarily complicated - proceedings of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, the Trial Observer blog offers regular updates and links from Phnom Penh, as Cambodian and international lawyers fight to bring to justice the accused.


Mark Peters/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

這意味着柬埔寨的紅色高棉種族滅絕審判再次放緩步伐。著有《在柬埔寨面對死亡》(Facing Death in Cambodia)的學者彼得·馬奎爾(Peter Maguire)說,這些審判是“有史以來最重要的戰爭罪行審判之一”。
不過,為1975年到1979年間死於自家政府的170萬柬埔寨人伸張正義的努力還在繼續:農謝(Nuon Chea)的入院不過是柬埔寨法院特別法庭(Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia)征程中最新的小挫折。農謝現年86歲,曾是紅色高棉政權的意識形態方面的主要理論家,當時被稱為“二哥”,如今是該政權仍在世的領導人 中職位最高者。
柬埔寨法院特別法庭由聯合國和柬埔寨政府聯合組建,2006年開始運行,迄今只判決了一人罪名成立。此人是康克由(Kaing Guek Eav),化名“杜赫”(Duch),曾任紅色高棉的主要監獄——毒樹嶺監獄(又譯“堆屍陵”)——獄長。“杜赫”最終被判處終身監禁。法院網站公布的這 段視頻顯示,杜赫在反覆道歉。
儘管其所受的詬病很可能比受到的讚揚多,但審判本身就是一項真正的成就。2011年,在目前的案件開始審判之時,馬奎爾曾就此在本報撰文。案件的被告包括農謝、前外交部長英薩利(Ieng Sary)和前國家主席喬森潘(Khieu Samphan)。
但去年12月,一波三折的案件審理再次發生意外,三名律師賈斯珀·波(Jasper Pauw)、米希爾·派斯曼(Michiel Pestman)和安德魯·亞努奇(Andrew Ianuzzi)退出該案。目前的審判稱為“案件002”,這三名律師曾是該案中農謝的辯護律師。《金邊郵報》(Phnom Penh Post)稱,他們退出的理由是“政府的干預阻止了他們為客戶提供最佳辯護”。
根據《金邊郵報》的這篇文章,律師提出的主要問題之一是,現任的柬埔寨政府大臣們拒絕對法庭傳喚做出回應,開放社會司法倡議(Open Society Justice Initiative)的法庭監督員克萊爾·達菲(Clair Duffy)形容律師的抱怨“有一定依據”。
周日,“二哥”因急性支氣管炎住進了金邊的柬蘇友誼醫院(Khmer Soviet Friendship Hospital),但這只是一系列同類事件中最近的一起。被告的年齡全都在80歲以上,他們中有越來越多的人健康狀況惡化,從而有可能導致審判完全終 止。第四名被告英蒂利(Ieng Thirith)是紅色高棉政權前領導人波爾布特的妻妹,也是英薩利的妻子。她因患痴呆症而免受審判。
在“柬埔寨法庭監督”(Cambodia Tribunal Monitor)網站的一篇專家評論中,馬奎爾猛烈抨擊聯合國稱:“柬埔寨的‘混合型法庭’應該被看做一次昂貴而過度複雜的實驗,這樣的實驗不該再次出現。”
就在柬埔寨律師和國際律師奮力把被告繩之以法之時,“審判觀察者”博客(Trial Observer)在金邊關注着柬埔寨法院特別法庭那特別複雜的特別訴訟,為我們定期更新信息和提供鏈接。

正在受審的紅色高棉(赤柬,Khmer Rouge)高層之一農謝傳來生病消息,這意味著審判進度將繼續延遲。
這意味著柬埔寨的紅色高棉種族滅絕審判再次放緩步伐。著有《在柬埔寨面對死亡》(Facing Death in Cambodia)的學者彼得·馬奎爾(Peter Maguire)說,這些審判是「有史以來最重要的戰爭罪行審判之一」。
不過,為1975年到1979年間死於自家政府的170萬柬埔寨人伸張正義的努力還在繼續:農謝(Nuon Chea)的入院不過是柬埔寨法院特別法庭(Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia)征程中最新的小挫折。農謝現年86歲,曾是紅色高棉政權的意識形態方面的主要理論家,當時被稱為「二哥」,如今是該政權仍在世的領導人中職位最高者。
柬埔寨法院特別法庭由聯合國和柬埔寨政府聯合組建,2006年開始運行,迄今只判決了一人罪名成立。此人是康克由(Kaing Guek Eav),化名「杜赫」(Duch),曾任紅色高棉的主要監獄——毒樹嶺監獄(tuol sleng,即S21監獄)——獄長。杜赫最終被判處終身監禁。法院網站公佈的這段視頻顯示,杜赫在反復道歉。
儘管其所受的詬病很可能比受到的讚揚多,但審判本身就是一項真正的成就。案件的被告包括農謝、前外交部長英薩利(Ieng Sary)和前國家主席喬森潘(Khieu Samphan)。
但去年12月,一波三折的案件審理再次發生意外,三名律師賈斯珀·波(Jasper Pauw)、米希爾·派斯曼(Michiel Pestman)和安德魯·亞努奇(Andrew Ianuzzi)退出該案。目前的審判稱為「案件002」,這三名律師曾是該案中農謝的辯護律師。《金邊郵報》(Phnom Penh Post)稱,他們退出的理由是「政府的干預阻止了他們為客戶提供最佳辯護」。
根據《金邊郵報》的這篇文章,律師提出的主要問題之一是,現任的柬埔寨政府大臣們拒絕對法庭傳喚做出回應,開放社會司法倡議(Open Society Justice Initiative)的法庭監督員克萊爾·達菲(Clair Duffy)形容律師的抱怨「有一定依據」。
週日,「二哥」因急性支氣管炎住進了金邊的柬蘇友誼醫院(Khmer Soviet Friendship Hospital),但這只是一系列同類事件中最近的一起。被告的年齡全都在80歲以上,他們中有越來越多的人健康狀況惡化,從而有可能導致審判完全終止。第四名被告英蒂利(Ieng Thirith)是紅色高棉政權前領導人波爾布特的妻妹,也是英薩利的妻子。她因患癡呆症而免受審判。
在「柬埔寨法庭監督」(Cambodia Tribunal Monitor)網站的一篇專家評論中,馬奎爾猛烈抨擊聯合國稱:「柬埔寨的『混合型法庭』應該被看做一次昂貴而過度複雜的實驗,這樣的實驗不該再次出現。

屠殺200萬人 赤柬四大魔頭受審

〔編 譯魏國金/綜合金邊二十七日外電報導〕前「赤柬」政權第二號人物農謝、前國家主席喬森潘、前外交部長英沙里及其妻子前社會事務部長英蒂迪等四名高官,二十 七日在聯合國支持下成立的特別法庭,首次就集體屠殺、違反人道等其他殘酷戰爭罪行受審。一九七五至七九年期間,赤柬政權約殺戮近兩百萬人,堪稱二十世紀人 類最黑暗篇章中的一頁。
本案被視為 二次世界大戰後納粹紐倫堡大審以來,最複雜的戰爭罪行案,四分之一的柬埔寨人,在赤柬四年集權統治下,因飢餓、勞改、折磨與行刑喪命,倖存者對相關審訊引 領期盼。四名被告於二○○七年被捕後,一直被羈押至今。他們皆高齡多病,複雜的審理恐需耗費數年,許多人擔心他們可能等不到宣判就死亡。
冷酷魔頭 受審面無表情
四 人在聯合國支持的「柬埔寨法院特別法庭」(ECCC)上聆訊時,均面無表情。戴著墨鏡、毛帽、穿著運動衣的農謝,聆訊約半小時左右,就以健康不佳、太冷等 為由離開法庭,步出法庭前他抱怨「我不滿意這項審訊」。農謝高齡八十四歲,人稱赤柬「二哥」,「大哥」波布於一九九八年死亡。八十五歲的英沙里與七十九歲 的英蒂迪,隨後也以健康理由離開法庭、回到拘所,獨留喬森潘聽訊。初步審訊預定進行四天,被告若不願合作可以缺席,預料四人都將否認犯案。